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Tuesday, 1 August 2017

Theyyam - A Ritual Art Popular In North Kerala - Ritual Dance Of Gods

Theyyam (Teyyam, Theyam, Theyyattam) is a popular ritual form of worship of North Malabar in Kerala, India, predominant in the Kolathunadu area (consisting of present-day Kasargod, Kannur Districts, Mananthavady Taluk of Wayanad and Vatakara and Koyilandy Taluks of Kozhikode of Kerala) and also in South Canara and Kodagu of Karnataka as a living cult with several thousand-year-old traditions, rituals and customs. The performers of Theyyam belong to the lower caste community, and have an important position in Theyyam. People of these districts consider Theyyam itself as a God and they seek blessings from this Theyyam. A similar custom is followed in the Mangalore region of neighbouring Karnataka known as Bhuta Kola.

Theyyam From Valliyottu Tharavadu
Theyyam From Valliyottu Tharavadu
The dance or invocation is generally performed in front of the village shrine. It is also performed in the houses as ancestor-worship with elaborate rites and rituals. There is no stage or curtain or other such arrangements for the performance. The devotees would be standing or some of them would be sitting on a sacred tree in front of the shrine. In short, it is an open theatre. A performance of a particular deity according to its significance and hierarchy in the shrine continues for 12 to 24 hours with intervals. The chief dancer who propitiates the central deity of the shrine has to reside in the rituals. This may be due to the influence of Jainism and Buddhism. Further, after the sun sets, this particular dancer would not eat anything for the remainder of that day (again possibly on account of a legacy of Jainism). His make-up is done by specialists and other dancers. The first part of the performance is usually known as Vellattam or Thottam. It is performed without proper make-up or any decorative costume. Only a small, red headdress is worn on this occasion.

Angakkaran Theyyam
Angakkaran Theyyam
The dancer along with the drummers recites the particular ritual song, which describes the myths and legends, of the deity of the shrine or the folk deity to be propitiated. This is accompanied by the playing of folk musical instruments. After finishing this primary ritualistic part of the invocation, the dancer returns to the green room. Again after a short interval he appears with proper make-up and costumes. There are different patterns of face-painting. Some of these patterns are called vairadelam, kattaram, kozhipuspam, kottumpurikam, and prakkezhuthu. Mostly primary and secondary colours are applied with contrast for face painting. It helps in effecting certain stylization in the dances. Then the dancer comes in front of the shrine and gradually “metamorphoses” into the particular deity of the shrine. He, after observation of certain rituals places the head-dress on his head and starts dancing. In the background, folk musical instruments like chenda, tudi, kuzhal and veekni are played in a certain rhythm. All the dancers take a shield and kadthala (sword) in their hands as continuation of the cult of weapons. Then the dancer circumambulates the shrine, runs in the courtyard and continues dancing there. The Theyyam dance has different steps known as Kalaasams. Each Kalaasam is repeated systematically from the first to the eighth step of footwork. A performance is a combination of playing of musical instruments, vocal recitations, dance, and peculiar makeup (usually predominantly orange) and costumes.The Kathivanoor Veeran Theyyam is one of the famous theyyam in Kerala

Makeup of Nagakkali Theyyam
Makeup of Nagakkali Theyyam
The mythical tales and mythological stories of India are often enacted in form of dance or drama or dance drama on stage. Most of the time, professional activists and theatre artists organize such stage performances to bring in a social reform, convey a message to the mass and awaken society for a cause through entertainment. It is more of a commercialized art or social activism with a purpose, and less of a festive tradition to appease or please the Divine. One such ceremonial tradition is Kerala’s Theyyam Festival. Among the offbeat Indian festivals is the “Dance of Gods”, which is colloquially known as Theyyam Festival in Kerala. Unique to the folk culture of Kerala India, this dance festival is a most spectacular ritual in worship of the Goddess Kali. Previously, only the temple priests living at upper rungs of the social ladder were privileged to hold on to the festivity as their inborn right. With the fading rigidity of castes in the progressive society of Kerala, they lost the monopoly of Theyyam Festival to a mass celebration by common man.

Theyyam Dance
Theyyam Dance
Theyyam is an 800-year old celebration of divinity and devotion in the northern Malabar region of Kerala. It is a most visually impressive form of cultural enthusiasm among the people of different castes. With its root steeped in the age-old Dravidian culture of South India, Theyyam is a mélange of dance, drama, music and mime. Though it has become a tribal festivity, the subject of performance is the glory of divine heroes and celestial spirits. The ceremonious dance is accompanied by the chorus of such musical instruments as Chenda, Elathalam, Kurumkuzal and Veekkuchenda. Among the Indian festivals in winter, Theyyam Festival of Kerala runs from December to April making it the best time to visit India for cultural tourists and art photographers. The musical dance performance is ritualistically held at some 1200 temples from north Malabar to south Malabar. Each participant represents a heroic character with divine power. Performers wear heavy make-up, huge masks and flamboyant costumes for dramatic appearance and spectacular presence.

Theyyam With Silver Mask
Theyyam With Silver Mask
There are surprisingly as many as 400 forms of Theyyam; each being unique in style, music, choreography, make-up, costumes, etc. Pottan, Kari Chamundi, Gulikan, Vishnumurthy, Nagakanni, Veerali, Raktha Chamundi, Bhagavati, and Mutiappan are some of the most popular forms of Theyyam in Kerala. Face painting is what all these different forms of Theyyam have in common. Performers get their bodies painted with bright colors in varying designs and patterns from top to toe. In some forms of Theyyam, the costume is made of coconut leaves for the lower part of the body, while the upper part of the body remains bare and painted. In some other forms of Theyyam, performers smear the body with a paste of rice and turmeric. Headwear is the heaviest and largest part of the costume. Headdresses are made of different materials including bamboo sticks, wooden boards, peacock feathers, coconut leaves, and flowers. Such ornamental make-up and costumes help performers personify the grandeur of mythological figures including gods, goddesses, spirits and demons.

What is the most offbeat about this Indian festival is that a few Theyyam forms require performers to wear bamboo crowns as high as 50–60 feet, which are supported by other people from behind. Either a piece of colorful cloth is used or coconut leaves are weaved together to cover the crowns. A silver replica of serpent embellished with red flowerers is seen around the necks of some performers. Those representing goddesses or female mythical figures wear wooden breasts adorned with ornaments and studded with gems. As per the legends of Theyyam Festival, the people of north Malabar got the right to perform Theyyam from Parasurama, the sixth incarnation of Lord Rama. It is also believed that the mortal bodies of performers become one with immortal spirits and mythical figures to perform ritual dances and caste a trance over onlookers. The performance ends with distribution of turmeric powder as a token of blessing to the devotees. In return of the blessing, they sprinkle rice grains over them performers. Some performances held in temple premises and courtyards continue to enchant the audience for hours.

Evidently, the season of Theyyam Festival from December to April is the best season of Kerala Tourism for cultural enthusiasts on a visit to Incredible India.

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